What happens if I failed a course that is not part of my program, but a course I needed to get into a program? Can I retake it? Also do graduate programs look at overall grade-point average, or do they mostly look at 3rd and 4th year?
if you failed a prerequisite to get into a program, you can absolutely retake it in order to try and achieve the mark needed to get in. it becomes trickier when you passed the course but didn’t get the mark you needed to get into your program; in that case, you would need to go to your registrar’s office and have them enrol you in the course. in this case, the second attempt at the course would be marked “extra”: that means that the course won’t count towards your 20.0 degree credits or GPA, but it would count towards breadth/program requirements.
regarding grad school, most graduate schools (that i’m aware of) look mainly at your upper year courses. the thing is, there are a LOT of grad programs at many institutions across the world. they have different requirements, and some are more competitive than others. it’s always good to look into the requirements for any graduate program(s) you may be considering in order to have a better idea of what you’re looking at.